```
Author: Arjen Markus <arjen.markus@wldelft.nl>
Author: David Smith <David.Smith@synopsis.com>
Author: Richard Suchenwirth <richard.suchenwirth-bauersachs@siemens.com>
Author: Don Porter <dgp@users.sf.net>
Author: SÃ©rgio Loureiro <srgloureiro@gmail.com>
State: Final
Type: Project
Vote: Done
Created: 15-Sep-2006
Post-History:
Keywords: Tcl,expr
Tcl-Version: 8.5
Tcl-Ticket: 1556802
```

# Abstract

This TIP clarifies and corrects the associativity behaviour of the exponentation operator that was introduced in [123].

# Background

The exponentiation operator found in various programming languages has a distinct right associativity. In this way it differs from the other arithmetic operators. Some languages do implement with left-associativity but this is felt to be awkward by many users.

[123] introduced an exponentiation operator into Tcl 8.5 and was quite elaborate in defining its behaviour with respect to integer arguments, as there are quite a few corner cases to be examined.

However, it was vague on the issue of associativity and in fact showed by one example that the operator as implemented then was left-associative.

# Rationale

A left-associative exponentiation operator is less useful than a right-associative operator, as pointed out in the Wikipedia article http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Associative . To illustrate, a left-associative exponentiation operator behaves like this:

x**y**z= (x**y)**z=x**(y*z)

Whereas a right-associative exponentiation operator behaves like this:

x**y**z=x**(y**z)

Thus, if the operator is left-associative, then the above expression can be rewritten using a single exponentiation.

For this reason many programming languages and mathematical systems, among these Fortran, Perl, Python, Scilab, Mathematica and Maple, have chosen right-associativity. Several others, MATLAB and Octave, which is intended to be compatible to MATLAB, use left-associativity. (Microsoft Excel also uses left-associativity, but this product exhibits more quirky arithmetic behaviour and therefore should not be considered as a serious factor, in at least one author's opinion.)

# Proposal

Therefore, given the expectation of programmers, the choice made in many programming languages and mathematical systems and the arguments about the limited usefulness of left-associativity, this TIP proposes to correct the behaviour of the exponentiation operator.

It should be right-associative, so that:

```
2 ** 3 ** 4 = 2 ** (3 ** 4) = 2 ** 81 = 2417851639229258349412352
```

(and not 4096, if left-associativity is used)

# Compatibility

No official version of Tcl 8.5 has been released yet. Existing "private" extensions that define an exponentiation operator that we are aware of use the right-associativity as well. Therefore this correction will only enhance compatibility.

# Copyright

This document is placed in the public domain