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# math::geometry(n) 1.3.0 tcllib "Tcl Math Library"

## Name

math::geometry - Geometrical computations

## Synopsis

- package require
**Tcl ?8.5?** - package require
**math::geometry ?1.3.0?**

**::math::geometry::+***point1**point2***::math::geometry::-***point1**point2***::math::geometry::p***x**y***::math::geometry::distance***point1**point2***::math::geometry::length***point***::math::geometry::s****factor**point***::math::geometry::direction***angle***::math::geometry::h***length***::math::geometry::v***length***::math::geometry::between***point1**point2**s***::math::geometry::octant***point***::math::geometry::rect***nw**se***::math::geometry::nwse***rect***::math::geometry::angle***line***::math::geometry::calculateDistanceToLine***P**line***::math::geometry::calculateDistanceToLineSegment***P**linesegment***::math::geometry::calculateDistanceToPolyline***P**polyline***::math::geometry::calculateDistanceToPolygon***P**polygon***::math::geometry::findClosestPointOnLine***P**line***::math::geometry::findClosestPointOnLineSegment***P**linesegment***::math::geometry::findClosestPointOnPolyline***P**polyline***::math::geometry::lengthOfPolyline***polyline***::math::geometry::movePointInDirection***P**direction**dist***::math::geometry::lineSegmentsIntersect***linesegment1**linesegment2***::math::geometry::findLineSegmentIntersection***linesegment1**linesegment2***::math::geometry::findLineIntersection***line1**line2***::math::geometry::polylinesIntersect***polyline1**polyline2***::math::geometry::polylinesBoundingIntersect***polyline1**polyline2**granularity***::math::geometry::intervalsOverlap***y1**y2**y3**y4**strict***::math::geometry::rectanglesOverlap***P1**P2**Q1**Q2**strict***::math::geometry::bbox***polyline***::math::geometry::pointInsidePolygon***P**polyline***::math::geometry::pointInsidePolygonAlt***P**polyline***::math::geometry::rectangleInsidePolygon***P1**P2**polyline***::math::geometry::areaPolygon***polygon***::math::geometry::translate***vector**polyline***::math::geometry::rotate***angle**polyline***::math::geometry::reflect***angle**polyline***::math::geometry::degToRad***angle***::math::geometry::radToDeg***angle***::math::geometry::circle***centre**radius***::math::geometry::circleTwoPoints***point1**point2***::math::geometry::pointInsideCircle***point**circle***::math::geometry::lineIntersectsCircle***line**circle***::math::geometry::lineSegmentIntersectsCircle***segment**circle***::math::geometry::intersectionLineWithCircle***line**circle***::math::geometry::intersectionCircleWithCircle***circle1**circle2***::math::geometry::tangentLinesToCircle***point**circle*

## Description

The **math::geometry** package is a collection of functions for
computations and manipulations on two-dimensional geometrical objects,
such as points, lines and polygons.

The geometrical objects are implemented as plain lists of coordinates. For instance a line is defined by a list of four numbers, the x- and y-coordinate of a first point and the x- and y-coordinates of a second point on the line.

The various types of object are recognised by the number of coordinate pairs and the context in which they are used: a list of four elements can be regarded as an infinite line, a finite line segment but also as a polyline of one segment and a point set of two points.

Currently the following types of objects are distinguished:

*point*- a list of two coordinates representing the x- and y-coordinates respectively.*line*- a list of four coordinates, interpreted as the x- and y-coordinates of two distinct points on the line.*line segment*- a list of four coordinates, interpreted as the x- and y-coordinates of the first and the last points on the line segment.*polyline*- a list of an even number of coordinates, interpreted as the x- and y-coordinates of an ordered set of points.*polygon*- like a polyline, but the implicit assumption is that the polyline is closed (if the first and last points do not coincide, the missing segment is automatically added).*point set*- again a list of an even number of coordinates, but the points are regarded without any ordering.*circle*- a list of thtee numbers, the first two are the coordinates of the centre and the third is the radius.

## PROCEDURES

The package defines the following public procedures:

**::math::geometry::+***point1**point2*Compute the sum of the two vectors given as points and return it. The result is a vector as well.

**::math::geometry::-***point1**point2*Compute the difference (point1 - point2) of the two vectors given as points and return it. The result is a vector as well.

**::math::geometry::p***x**y*Construct a point from its coordinates and return it as the result of the command.

**::math::geometry::distance***point1**point2*Compute the distance between the two points and return it as the result of the command. This is in essence the same as

math::geometry::length [math::geomtry::- point1 point2]

**::math::geometry::length***point*Compute the length of the vector and return it as the result of the command.

**::math::geometry::s****factor**point*Scale the vector by the factor and return it as the result of the command. This is a vector as well.

**::math::geometry::direction***angle*Given the angle in degrees this command computes and returns the unit vector pointing into this direction. The vector for angle == 0 points to the right (up), and for angle == 90 up (north).

**::math::geometry::h***length*Returns a horizontal vector on the X-axis of the specified length. Positive lengths point to the right (east).

**::math::geometry::v***length*Returns a vertical vector on the Y-axis of the specified length. Positive lengths point down (south).

**::math::geometry::between***point1**point2**s*Compute the point which is at relative distance

*s*between the two points and return it as the result of the command. A relative distance of**0**returns*point1*, the distance**1**returns*point2*. Distances < 0 or > 1 extrapolate along the line between the two point.**::math::geometry::octant***point*Compute the octant of the circle the point is in and return it as the result of the command. The possible results are

east

northeast

north

northwest

west

southwest

south

southeast

Each octant is the arc of the circle +/- 22.5 degrees from the cardinal direction the octant is named for.

**::math::geometry::rect***nw**se*Construct a rectangle from its northwest and southeast corners and return it as the result of the command.

**::math::geometry::nwse***rect*Extract the northwest and southeast corners of the rectangle and return them as the result of the command (a 2-element list containing the points, in the named order).

**::math::geometry::angle***line*Calculate the angle from the positive x-axis to a given line (in two dimensions only).

- list
*line* Coordinates of the line

- list
**::math::geometry::calculateDistanceToLine***P**line*Calculate the distance of point P to the (infinite) line and return the result

- list
*P* List of two numbers, the coordinates of the point

- list
*line* List of four numbers, the coordinates of two points on the line

- list
**::math::geometry::calculateDistanceToLineSegment***P**linesegment*Calculate the distance of point P to the (finite) line segment and return the result.

- list
*P* List of two numbers, the coordinates of the point

- list
*linesegment* List of four numbers, the coordinates of the first and last points of the line segment

- list
**::math::geometry::calculateDistanceToPolyline***P**polyline*Calculate the distance of point P to the polyline and return the result. Note that a polyline needs not to be closed.

- list
*P* List of two numbers, the coordinates of the point

- list
*polyline* List of numbers, the coordinates of the vertices of the polyline

- list
**::math::geometry::calculateDistanceToPolygon***P**polygon*Calculate the distance of point P to the polygon and return the result. If the list of coordinates is not closed (first and last points differ), it is automatically closed.

- list
*P* List of two numbers, the coordinates of the point

- list
*polygon* List of numbers, the coordinates of the vertices of the polygon

- list
**::math::geometry::findClosestPointOnLine***P**line*Return the point on a line which is closest to a given point.

- list
*P* List of two numbers, the coordinates of the point

- list
*line* List of four numbers, the coordinates of two points on the line

- list
**::math::geometry::findClosestPointOnLineSegment***P**linesegment*Return the point on a

*line segment*which is closest to a given point.- list
*P* List of two numbers, the coordinates of the point

- list
*linesegment* List of four numbers, the first and last points on the line segment

- list
**::math::geometry::findClosestPointOnPolyline***P**polyline*Return the point on a

*polyline*which is closest to a given point.- list
*P* List of two numbers, the coordinates of the point

- list
*polyline* List of numbers, the vertices of the polyline

- list
**::math::geometry::lengthOfPolyline***polyline*Return the length of the

*polyline*(note: it not regarded as a polygon)- list
*polyline* List of numbers, the vertices of the polyline

- list
**::math::geometry::movePointInDirection***P**direction**dist*Move a point over a given distance in a given direction and return the new coordinates (in two dimensions only).

- list
*P* Coordinates of the point to be moved

- double
*direction* Direction (in degrees; 0 is to the right, 90 upwards)

- list
*dist* Distance over which to move the point

- list
**::math::geometry::lineSegmentsIntersect***linesegment1**linesegment2*Check if two line segments intersect or coincide. Returns 1 if that is the case, 0 otherwise (in two dimensions only). If an endpoint of one segment lies on the other segment (or is very close to the segment), they are considered to intersect

- list
*linesegment1* First line segment

- list
*linesegment2* Second line segment

- list
**::math::geometry::findLineSegmentIntersection***linesegment1**linesegment2*Find the intersection point of two line segments. Return the coordinates or the keywords "coincident" or "none" if the line segments coincide or have no points in common (in two dimensions only).

- list
*linesegment1* First line segment

- list
*linesegment2* Second line segment

- list
**::math::geometry::findLineIntersection***line1**line2*Find the intersection point of two (infinite) lines. Return the coordinates or the keywords "coincident" or "none" if the lines coincide or have no points in common (in two dimensions only).

- list
*line1* First line

- list
*line2* Second line

See section References for details on the algorithm and math behind it.

- list
**::math::geometry::polylinesIntersect***polyline1**polyline2*Check if two polylines intersect or not (in two dimensions only).

- list
*polyline1* First polyline

- list
*polyline2* Second polyline

- list
**::math::geometry::polylinesBoundingIntersect***polyline1**polyline2**granularity*Check whether two polylines intersect, but reduce the correctness of the result to the given granularity. Use this for faster, but weaker, intersection checking.

How it works:

Each polyline is split into a number of smaller polylines, consisting of granularity points each. If a pair of those smaller lines' bounding boxes intersect, then this procedure returns 1, otherwise it returns 0.

- list
*polyline1* First polyline

- list
*polyline2* Second polyline

- int
*granularity* Number of points in each part (<=1 means check every edge)

- list
**::math::geometry::intervalsOverlap***y1**y2**y3**y4**strict*Check if two intervals overlap.

- double
*y1,y2* Begin and end of first interval

- double
*y3,y4* Begin and end of second interval

- logical
*strict* Check for strict or non-strict overlap

- double
**::math::geometry::rectanglesOverlap***P1**P2**Q1**Q2**strict*Check if two rectangles overlap.

- list
*P1* upper-left corner of the first rectangle

- list
*P2* lower-right corner of the first rectangle

- list
*Q1* upper-left corner of the second rectangle

- list
*Q2* lower-right corner of the second rectangle

- list
*strict* choosing strict or non-strict interpretation

- list
**::math::geometry::bbox***polyline*Calculate the bounding box of a polyline. Returns a list of four coordinates: the upper-left and the lower-right corner of the box.

- list
*polyline* The polyline to be examined

- list
**::math::geometry::pointInsidePolygon***P**polyline*Determine if a point is completely inside a polygon. If the point touches the polygon, then the point is not completely inside the polygon.

- list
*P* Coordinates of the point

- list
*polyline* The polyline to be examined

- list
**::math::geometry::pointInsidePolygonAlt***P**polyline*Determine if a point is completely inside a polygon. If the point touches the polygon, then the point is not completely inside the polygon.

*Note:*this alternative procedure uses the so-called winding number to determine this. It handles self-intersecting polygons in a "natural" way.- list
*P* Coordinates of the point

- list
*polyline* The polyline to be examined

- list
**::math::geometry::rectangleInsidePolygon***P1**P2**polyline*Determine if a rectangle is completely inside a polygon. If polygon touches the rectangle, then the rectangle is not complete inside the polygon.

- list
*P1* Upper-left corner of the rectangle

- list
*P2* Lower-right corner of the rectangle

- list
*polygon* The polygon in question

- list
**::math::geometry::areaPolygon***polygon*Calculate the area of a polygon.

- list
*polygon* The polygon in question

- list
**::math::geometry::translate***vector**polyline*Translate a polyline over a given vector

- list
*vector* Translation vector

- list
*polyline* The polyline to be rotated

- list
**::math::geometry::rotate***angle**polyline*Rotate a polyline over a given angle (degrees) around the origin

- list
*angle* Angle over which to rotate the polyline (degrees)

- list
*polyline* The polyline to be translated

- list
**::math::geometry::reflect***angle**polyline*Reflect a polyline in a line through the origin at a given angle (degrees) to the x-axis

- list
*angle* Angle of the line of reflection (degrees)

- list
*polyline* The polyline to be reflected

- list
**::math::geometry::degToRad***angle*Convert from degrees to radians

- list
*angle* Angle in degrees

- list
**::math::geometry::radToDeg***angle*Convert from radians to degrees

- list
*angle* Angle in radians

- list
**::math::geometry::circle***centre**radius*Convenience procedure to create a circle from a point and a radius.

- list
*centre* Coordinates of the circle centre

- list
*radius* Radius of the circle

- list
**::math::geometry::circleTwoPoints***point1**point2*Convenience procedure to create a circle from two points on its circumference The centre is the point between the two given points, the radius is half the distance between them.

- list
*point1* First point

- list
*point2* Second point

- list
**::math::geometry::pointInsideCircle***point**circle*Determine if the given point is inside the circle or on the circumference (1) or outside (0).

- list
*point* Point to be checked

- list
*circle* Circle that may or may not contain the point

- list
**::math::geometry::lineIntersectsCircle***line**circle*Determine if the given line intersects the circle or touches it (1) or does not (0).

- list
*line* Line to be checked

- list
*circle* Circle that may or may not be intersected

- list
**::math::geometry::lineSegmentIntersectsCircle***segment**circle*Determine if the given line segment intersects the circle or touches it (1) or does not (0).

- list
*segment* Line segment to be checked

- list
*circle* Circle that may or may not be intersected

- list
**::math::geometry::intersectionLineWithCircle***line**circle*Determine the points at which the given line intersects the circle. There can be zero, one or two points. (If the line touches the circle or is close to it, then one point is returned. An arbitrary margin of 1.0e-10 times the radius is used to determine this situation.)

- list
*line* Line to be checked

- list
*circle* Circle that may or may not be intersected

- list
**::math::geometry::intersectionCircleWithCircle***circle1**circle2*Determine the points at which the given two circles intersect. There can be zero, one or two points. (If the two circles touch the circle or are very close, then one point is returned. An arbitrary margin of 1.0e-10 times the radius of the first circle is used to determine this situation.)

- list
*circle1* First circle

- list
*circle2* Second circle

- list
**::math::geometry::tangentLinesToCircle***point**circle*Determine the tangent lines from the given point to the circle. There can be zero, one or two lines. (If the point is on the cirucmference or very close to the circle, then one line is returned. An arbitrary margin of 1.0e-10 times the radius of the circle is used to determine this situation.)

- list
*point* Point in question

- list
*circle* Circle to which the tangent lines are to be determined

- list

## Bugs, Ideas, Feedback

This document, and the package it describes, will undoubtedly contain
bugs and other problems.
Please report such in the category *math :: geometry* of the
Tcllib Trackers.
Please also report any ideas for enhancements you may have for either
package and/or documentation.

When proposing code changes, please provide *unified diffs*,
i.e the output of **diff -u**.

Note further that *attachments* are strongly preferred over
inlined patches. Attachments can be made by going to the **Edit**
form of the ticket immediately after its creation, and then using the
left-most button in the secondary navigation bar.

## Category

Mathematics

## Copyright

Copyright © 2001 by Ideogramic ApS and other parties

Copyright © 2010 by Andreas Kupries

Copyright © 2010 by Kevin Kenny

Copyright © 2018 by Arjen Markus